Publications LBI for Lung Health

On this page you can find a list of all publications of our institute.

Publications 2024

Biomarker-directed targeted therapy plus durvalumab in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: a phase 2 umbrella trial. – Prof. Sylvia Hartl, MD

For patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumors without currently targetable molecular alterations, standard-of-care treatment is immunotherapy with anti-PD-(L)1 checkpoint inhibitors, alone or with platinum-doublet therapy. However, not all patients derive durable benefit and resistance to immune checkpoint blockade is common. Understanding mechanisms of resistance-which can include defects in DNA damage response and repair pathways, alterations or functional mutations in STK11/LKB1, alterations in antigen-presentation pathways, and immunosuppressive cellular subsets within the tumor microenvironment-and developing effective therapies to overcome them, remains an unmet need. Here the phase 2 umbrella HUDSON study evaluated rational combination regimens for advanced NSCLC following failure of anti-PD-(L)1-containing immunotherapy and platinum-doublet therapy. A total of 268 patients received durvalumab (anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody)-ceralasertib (ATR kinase inhibitor), durvalumab-olaparib (PARP inhibitor), durvalumab-danvatirsen (STAT3 antisense oligonucleotide) or durvalumab-oleclumab (anti-CD73 monoclonal antibody). Greatest clinical benefit was observed with durvalumab-ceralasertib; objective response rate (primary outcome) was 13.9% (11/79) versus 2.6% (5/189) with other regimens, pooled, median progression-free survival (secondary outcome) was 5.8 (80% confidence interval 4.6-7.4) versus 2.7 (1.8-2.8) months, and median overall survival (secondary outcome) was 17.4 (14.1-20.3) versus 9.4 (7.5-10.6) months. Benefit with durvalumab-ceralasertib was consistent across known immunotherapy-refractory subgroups. In ATM-altered patients hypothesized to harbor vulnerability to ATR inhibition, objective response rate was 26.1% (6/23) and median progression-free survival/median overall survival were 8.4/22.8 months. Durvalumab-ceralasertib safety/tolerability profile was manageable. Biomarker analyses suggested that anti-PD-L1/ATR inhibition induced immune changes that reinvigorated antitumor immunity. Durvalumab-ceralasertib is under further investigation in immunotherapy-refractory NSCLC.

The effect of body compartments on lung function in childhood and adolescence – Alina Ofenheimer, MD

There is an association between body composition and lung function, assessed by spirometry, but the effects of body compartments on static lung volumes and its changes during lung growth remain to be explored. We aimed to investigate the association of appendicular lean mass, reflecting skeletal muscle mass, and fat mass on forced and static lung function measures in childhood and adolescence.

This study demonstrates the different effects of muscle and fat mass on forced expiratory and static lung volumes. Achieving and maintaining muscle mass in childhood and adolescence might become an important preventive strategy for lung health in adulthood.

Prevalence of chronic cough, its risk factors and population attributable risk in the Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) study: a multinational cross-sectional study. – Hazim Abozid, MD

Chronic cough is a common respiratory symptom with an impact on daily activities and quality of life. Global prevalence data are scarce and derive mainly from European and Asian countries and studies with outcomes other than chronic cough. In this study, we aimed to estimate the prevalence of chronic cough across a large number of study sites as well as to identify its main risk factors using a standardised protocol and definition.

The prevalence of chronic cough varied from 3% in India (rural Pune) to 24% in the United States of America (Lexington,KY). Chronic cough was more common among females, both current and passive smokers, those working in a dusty job, those with a history of tuberculosis, those who were obese, those with a low level of education and those with hypertension or airflow limitation. The most influential risk factors were current smoking and working in a dusty job.

Our findings suggested that the prevalence of chronic cough varies widely across sites in different world regions. Cigarette smoking and exposure to dust in the workplace are its major risk factors.

Publications 2023

Diagnostic Potential of Oscillometry: A Population-based Approach – Chiara Veneroni, PhD

Respiratory resistance (Rrs) and reactance (Xrs) measured by oscillometry and their intra-breath changes have emerged as sensitive parameters for detecting early pathological impairments during tidal breathing.
Abnormal oscillometry parameters are present in 1/5 of this adult population and are significantly associated with respiratory symptoms and disease. Our findings underscore the potential of oscillometry as a tool for detecting and evaluating respiratory impairments, even in individuals with normal spirometry.

Clinical factors linked to the type of respiratory medication in COPD: results from the COSYCONET cohort. – Dr. Prof. Emiel Wouters, PhD, FERS

The use of maintenance medication in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in real life is known to deviate from recommendations in guidelines, which are largely based on randomized controlled trials and selected populations.
Using data from a large, close to real-life observational cohort, we identified factors linked to the use of various types of respiratory COPD medication. Overall, use was consistent with GOLD recommendations. Beyond this, we identified other correlates of medication use that may help us to understand and improve therapy decisions in clinical practice.

Restrictive Spirometry or PRISm: Does it Matter? – Caspar Schiffers, PhD

There is a significant heterogeneity in the definitions and nomenclature used for low lung function. The most widely used term, “restrictive spirometry” (RSP), is defined by the presence of a low vital capacity (FVC) with a preserved forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)/FVC ratio.
The LEAD (Lung, hEart, sociAl, boDy) Study; NCT01727518; is a
single-centred longitudinal, observational, population-based cohort study. In the first study phase (2012 to 2016) a randomized stratified sample population (stratified by age, sex, and residential area) of 11,423 subjects (females 52.4%), aged 6-82 years, from Vienna and lower Austria has been investigated.

Prevalence of restrictive lung function in children and adults in the general population. – Caspar Schiffers, PhD

Restrictive lung function (RLF) is characterized by a reduced lung expansion and size. In the absence of lung volume measurements, restriction can be indirectly assessed with restrictive spirometric patterns (RSP) by spirometry.
Pre-bronchodilation lung function data of 8891 subjects (48.0% male, age 6–82 years) have been collected in the LEAD Study, a population-based study from Vienna, Austria. The cohort was categorized in the following groups based on the Global Lung Initiative reference equations: normal subjects, RLF (TLC <lower limit of normal (LLN)), RSP (FEV1/FVC ≥LLN and a FVC <LLN), RSP only (RSP with TLC ≥LLN). Normal subjects were considered those with FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC and TLC between LLN and ULN (upper limit of normal).
The prevalence of true restrictive lung function and RSP in the Austrian general population is lower than previously estimated. Our data confirm the need for direct lung volume measurement to diagnose true restrictive lung function.

Prevalence of dyspnea in general adult populations: A systematic review and metaanalysis – Alexander Müller, MSc.

Dyspnea is a commonly described symptom in various chronic and acute conditions. Despite its frequency, relatively little is known about the prevalence and assessment of dyspnea in general populations. The aims of this review were:

  1. to estimate the prevalence of dyspnea in general adult populations;
  2. to identify associated factors; and
  3. to identify used methods for dyspnea assessment.

Dyspnea is a common symptom in adults in high-income countries. However, the high heterogeneity across studies and the lack of data from low- and middle-income countries limit the generalizability of our findings. Therefore, more research is needed to unveil the prevalence of dyspnea and its main risk factors in general populations around the world.

Supranormal lung function: Prevalence, associated factors and clinical manifestations across the lifespan – Caspar Schiffers, PhD

It is now well established that there are different life-long lung function trajectories in the general population, and that some are associated with better or worse health outcomes. Yet, the prevalence, clinical characteristics and risk factors of individuals with supranormal FEV or FVC values (above the upper-limit of normal [ULN]) in different age-bins through the lifetime in the general population are poorly understood.

To address these questions, we investigated the prevalence of supranormal FEV and FVC values in the LEAD (Lung, hEart, sociAl and boDy) study, a general population cohort in Austria that includes participants from 6 to 82 years of age.

CT airway remodelling and chronic cough – Hazim Abozid, MD

Rationale Structural airway changes related to chroniccough (CC) are described in the literature, but so farreported data are rare and non-conclusive. Furthermore,they derive mainly from cohorts with small sample sizes.Advanced CT imaging not only allows airway abnormalitiesto be quantified, but also to count the number of visibleairways. The current study evaluates these airwayabnormalities in CC and assesses the contribution of CCin addition to CT findings on the progression of airflowlimitation, defined as a decline in forced expiratory volumein 1 s (FEV1) over time.

Asthma Prevalence and Phenotyping in the General Population: The LEAD (Lung, hEart, sociAl, boDy) Study – Caspar Schiffers, PhD

In the current publication that is part of the LEAD general population cohort, we aimed to examine the prevalence of asthma in the Austrian general population and better understand how differential asthma phenotypes present itself. Our findings reveal that the prevalence of asthma is 4.6%, which fit well with the global prevalence rates. Furthermore, asthma phenotypes were age-dependent: there was a shift from allergic to non-allergic asthma with increasing age, with a non-eosinophilc asthma being more prominent. Lastly, we observed that asthma has major association with body composition.

Prevalence of restrictive lung function in children and adults in the general population – Caspar Schiffers, PhD

Restrictive lung function (RLF) is characterized by a reduced lung expansion and size, but in the absence of lung volume measurements, restriction can be indirectly assessed through spirometry with the restrictive spirometric patterns (RSP). In the current publication that is part of the LEAD Study, we evaluated the prevalence of RLF and RSP in the general population and determined factors influencing RLF and RSP. The prevalence of RLF and RSP in the general population are 1.1 and 4.4%, respectively. While RSP has a high negative predictive value, it has a low positive predictive value to define true RLF. In addition, we observed that body composition is an important determining factor of RLF and RSP. Overall, our data indicate the need to combine lung function and body composition trajectories.